If you were to sit and watch a mass of runners going by at the local 5k race, you will see all sorts of varying running forms, techniques, and movement strategies. Noticeable differences include varying head positions, arm swings, elbow angles, spinal postures, hip movements, knee drives, stride lengths, and step cadences. A largely debated topic is landing mechanics, specifically if it’s a running sin or not to heel strike (land heel first). My goal with this article is to discuss the differences in foot landing positions as well as give my opinion as a runner and physical therapist on the subject.
The heel strike landing pattern (also referred to as rearfoot strike (RFS)) became a more widely-accepted and adopted technique with the creation of the cushioned running shoe. Prior to shoe companies adding extra cushion under the heel, it was near impossible for someone to consistently heel strike for miles and miles without crushing their calcaneus (heel bone) into oblivion. Therefore, most (if not all) runners “back in the day” were midfoot or forefoot strikers, allowing the soft tissue structures of the feet and legs to absorb more of the load. Many advocate a midfoot or forefoot landing pattern now since it is more “natural” when not influenced by the modern advancement of the cushioned running shoe.
So what’s the big deal between strike patterns? Great question!
Heel striking is exactly as it sounds and occurs when the runner lands heel first (usually on the outer heel) with their ankle flexed and toes up. Most runners nowadays are heel strikers. The benefits of heel striking include the naturalness of it for most runners (especially novice) and the decreased soft tissue strain when compared to the other landing types. However, heel striking increases the amount of force experienced by the leg bones, hips, and knees because the foot and ankle is unable to absorb some of the load like with midfoot and forefoot runners. Though the max peak force experienced is similar between the different landing patterns, heel strikers typically experience more overall forces due to 1) an increased initial peak force with landing (see image below), and 2) increased contact time with the ground required to go from landing to push off. The increased force exposure and absorption may increase a heel strike runner’s risk for general joint pains and boney stress injuries compared to forefoot and midfoot runners.
Midfoot striking occurs when a runner lands flat footed with relatively equal distribution of weight throughout the foot while forefoot runners land more on the ball of their foot. These landing patterns are commonly described as more natural styles of running because running barefoot would likely require adopting one of these landing patterns to help distribute the landing forces. Unlike with heel striking, the foot and ankle are able to absorb much of the force, reducing the forces experienced in the leg bones and joints proximal to the ankle. Additionally, these landing patterns usually result in a quicker step cadence, resulting in an overall decreased contact time with the ground. Though there may be reduced stress to the leg bones and joint structures, there is oftentimes increased strain to the soft tissues, especially those in the foot and lower leg. This is why runners transitioning from heel striking to midfoot/forefoot landing are advised to transition slowly. These runners do not experience the same initial contact peak force as heel strikers do; however, the max experienced force is relatively the same.
So, is one landing pattern better than the others? Well, it depends on who you ask. Below is this runner’s and physical therapist’s opinion.
If you have ever tried changing your own landing pattern or tried teaching someone else, it is extremely challenging and frustrating for all parties involved. It can be awkward for the runner and can take months to master a new running technique while slowing ramping up mileage to avoid overuse injuries. Plus, many runners cannot accurately identify their own landing patterns (many think they are midfoot/forefoot runners but on video analysis are actually heel striking). Therefore, I do not believe changing the strike pattern is necessary for most runners as there are other components of the running that may be easier to modify with bigger results: foot placement and stride cadence.
A common issue associated with heel striking is overstriding, meaning the landing foot is hitting the ground ahead of the runner. It’s hard to do so when landing midfoot or forefoot. The further out front the foot lands, the harder the impact typically experienced through the leg. Additionally, the foot will spend more time in contact with the ground as it becomes the supporting post for the body transitioning over into the next step. In general, increased time with an external force can increase injury risk. Also, when the foot lands ahead of the body, it creates a temporary braking force. Newton’s Law of Physics states a force will create an equal and opposite force, so a foot landing out in front will create an impact force right back at the runner. If the goal is to keep moving forward, eliminating opposing backward forces would be good, right? If a runner can decrease their stride length so that the foot lands more under their body instead of outfront, it can significantly reduce the overall force absorbed, decrease contact time with the ground, and reduce/eliminate the backward impulse generated.
Increasing stride cadence (step frequency) is another fairly easy modification a runner can make to reduce strain and improve running efficiency. Given a set overall speed/pace, the runner with a slower cadence must have a longer stride length than a runner with a quicker cadence. This longer stride increases ground contact time and forces the body has to absorb. Purposefully increasing stride frequency helps reduce stride length and improves foot landing placement, resulting in a more efficient motion (less braking forces) and decreased load. I recommend a cadence of 160-180 steps per minute. If your cadence is significantly lower than this, do not immediately increase your step frequency to match it. Start by increasing your current step frequency by 10% and gradually increase as you get more comfortable with a quicker yet shorter step. I heard from a buddy once that a runner should pretend to be a ninja trying to sneak up on someone (think quick and quiet feet!).
In summary, there are many variances to running form and technique with arguably the most disputed being foot strike pattern. To me, there are pros and cons of each. However, I feel adjusting foot landing placement and stride cadence are more beneficial (and easier) than adjusting foot strike. By focusing on landing more under the body and quickly transitioning into the next step, a runner will likely be more successful in reducing overload forces, improving efficiency, and reducing injury risk. If constantly dealing with overuse running injuries or feeling inefficient with running, try modify one or both of these instead of focusing on how your foot is landing!
Shameless Plug: Having pain with running and issues with modifying running mechanics, come see us at Vertex PT Specialists to have one of our trained therapists evaluate your running form, help address any physical impairments you may have, and get you back to running sooner!